In my previous post, A Dictionary-like Python interface for OData I introduced a new sub-package I've added to Pyslet to implement support for OData version 2. You can download the latest version of the Pyslet package from the QTI Migration Tool & Pyslet home page.
To recap, I've decided to set about writing my own data access layer for Python that is modelled on the conventions of OData. I've validated the API by writing a concrete implementation in the form of an OData client. In this post I'll introduce the next step in the process which is a simple alternative implementation that uses a different underlying storage model, in other words, an implementation which uses something other than a remote OData server. I'll then expose this implementation as an OData server to validate that my data access layer API works from both perspectives.
Unlike other frameworks for implementing OData services Pyslet starts with the metadata model, it is not automatically generated from your code, you must write it yourself. This differs from the object-first approach taken by other frameworks, illustrated here:
This picture is typical of a project using something like Microsoft's WCF. Essentially, there's a two-step process. You use something like Microsoft's entity framework to generate classes from a database schema, customise the classes a little and then the metadata model is auto-generated from your code model. Of course, you can go straight to code and implement your own code model that implements the appropriate queryable interface but this would typically be done for a specific model.
Contrast this with the approach taken by Pyslet where the entities are not model-specific classes. For example, when modelling the Northwind service there is no Python class called
Product as there would be in the approach taken by other frameworks. Instead there is a generalised implementation of
Entity which behaves like a dictionary. The main difference is probably that you'll use
supplier['Phone'] instead of simply
supplier.phone or, if you'd have gone down the getter/setter route,
supplier.GetPhone(). In my opinion, this works better than a tighter binding for a number of reasons, but particularly because it makes the user more mindful of when data access is happening and when it isn't.
Using a looser binding also helps prevent the type of problems I had during the development of the QTI specification. Lots of people were using Java and JAXB to autogenerate classes from the XML specification (cf autogenerating classes from a database schema) but the QTI model contained a
class attribute on most elements to allow for stylesheet support. This class attribute prevented auto-generation because class is a reserved word in the Java language. Trying to fix this up after auto-generation would be madness but fixing it up before turns out to be a little tricky and this glitch seriously damaged the specification's user-experience. We got over it, but I'm wary now and when modelling OData I stepped back from a tighter binding, in part, to prevent hard to fix glitches like the use of Python reserved words as property names.
For this blog post I'm using a lightweight in-memory data storage implementation which can be automatically provisioned from the metadata document and I'm going to cheat by making a copy of the metadata document used by the Northwind service. Exposing OData the Pyslet way is a little more work if you already have a SQL database containing your data because I don't have a tool that auto-generates the metadata document from the SQL database schema. Automating the other direction is easy, but more on that in Part III.
I used my web browser to grab a copy of
http://services.odata.org/V2/Northwind/Northwind.svc/$metadata and saved it to a file called
Northwind.xml. I can then load the model from the interpreter:
>>> import pyslet.odata2.metadata as edmx >>> doc=edmx.Document() >>> f=open('Northwind.xml') >>> doc.Read(f) >>> f.close()
This special Document class ensures that the model is loaded with the special Pyslet element implementations. The Products entity set can be looked up directly but at the moment it's empty!
>>> productSet=doc.root.DataServices['ODataWeb.Northwind.Model.NorthwindEntities.Products'] >>> products=productSet.OpenCollection() >>> len(products) 0 >>> products.close()
This isn't surprising, there is nothing in the metadata model itself which binds it to the data service at services.odata.org. The model isn't linked to any actual storage for the data. By default, the model behaves as if it is bound to an empty read-only data store.
To help me validate that my API can be used for something other than talking to real OData services I've created an object that provisions storage for an EntityContainer (that's like a database in OData) using standard Python dictionaries. By passing the definition of an EntityContainer to the object's constructor I create a binding between the model and this new data store.
>>> from pyslet.odata2.memds import InMemoryEntityContainer >>> container=InMemoryEntityContainer(doc.root.DataServices['ODataWeb.Northwind.Model.NorthwindEntities']) >>> products=productSet.OpenCollection() >>> len(products) 0
The collection of products is still empty but it is now writeable. I'm going to cheat again to illustrate this by borrowing some code from the previous blog post to open an OData client connected to the real Northwind service.
>>> from pyslet.odata2.client import Client >>> c=Client("http://services.odata.org/V2/Northwind/Northwind.svc/") >>> nwProducts=c.feeds['Products'].OpenCollection()
Here's a simple loop to copy the products from the real service into my own collection. It's a bit clumsy in the interpreter but careful typing pays off:
>>> for nwProduct in nwProducts.itervalues(): ... product=collection.CopyEntity(nwProduct) ... product.SetKey(nwProduct.Key()) ... collection.InsertEntity(product) ... >>> len(collection) 77
To emphasise the difference between my in-memory collection and the live OData service I'll add another record to my copy of this entity set. Fortunately most of the fields are marked as Nullable in the model so to save my fingers I'll just set those that aren't.
>>> product=collection.NewEntity() >>> product.SetKey(100) >>> product['ProductName'].SetFromValue("The one and only Pyslet") >>> product['Discontinued'].SetFromValue(False) >>> collection.InsertEntity(product) >>> len(collection) 78
Now I can do everything I can with the OData client using my copy of the service, I'll filter the entities to make it easier to see:
>>> import pyslet.odata2.core as core >>> filter=core.CommonExpression.FromString("substringof('one',ProductName)") >>> collection.Filter(filter) >>> for p in collection.itervalues(): print p.Key(), p['ProductName'].value ... 21 Sir Rodney's Scones 32 Mascarpone Fabioli 100 The one and only Pyslet
I can access my own data store using the same API that I used to access a remote OData service in the previous post. In that post, I also claimed that it was easy to wrap my own implementations of this API to expose it as an OData service.
Exposing an OData Server
My OData server class implements the wsgi protocol so it is easy to link it up to a simple http server and tell it to handle a single request.
>>> from pyslet.odata2.server import Server >>> server=Server("http://localhost:8081/") >>> server.SetModel(doc) >>> from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server >>> httpServer=make_server('',8081,server) >>> httpServer.handle_request()
My interpreter session is hanging at this point waiting for a single HTTP connection. The Northwind service doesn't have any feed customisations on the Products feed and, as we slavishly copied it, the Atom-view in the browser is a bit boring so I used the excellent JSONView plugin for Firefox and the following URL to hit my service:
This is the same filter as I used in the interpreter before but I've added an ordering and specified my preference for JSON format. Here's the result.
As I did this, Python's simple server object logged the following output to my console:
127.0.0.1 - - [24/Feb/2014 11:17:05] "GET /Products?$filter=substringof(%27one%27,ProductName)&$orderby=ProductID%20desc&$format=json HTTP/1.1" 200 1701 >>>
The in-memory data store is a bit of a toy, though some more useful applications might be possible. In the OData documentation I go through a tutorial on how to create a lightweight memory-cache of key-value pairs exposed as an OData service. I'm not really suggestion using it in a production environment to replace memcached. What this implementation is really useful for is developing and testing applications that consume the DAL API without needing to be connected to the real data source. Also, it can be wrapped in the OData Server class as shown above and used to provide a more realistic mock of an actual service for testing that your consumer application still works when the data service is remote. I've used it in Pyslet's unit-tests this way.
In the third and final part of this Python and OData series I'll cover a more interesting implementation of the API using the SQLite database.